Apple III and III Plus differences

Last night, I decided it would be a good idea to move a 512K memory board from a 5V Apple /// that has become increasingly flaky over the past few month, to a III Plus. While the effort was ultimately unsuccessful (more on that in a later post), the exercise gave me the opportunity to note some differences between the two boards. I took some pictures. Here they are.

Clock/Calendar Chip and Battery

Of course, we all know the story of the bad batch of clock chips Apple bought from National Semiconductor.  It seems to be one of the few problems commonly associated with the /// for which Apple isn’t blamed.  When end users and dealers began receiving their new ///s in late 1980, one of the first things they noticed was that the inbuilt clock wasn’t functioning normally. Sometimes, it would speed up randomly; other times, it failed to roll over properly and continued to count up.  If you ever wondered what thirty-three o’clock looked like, you could ask your Apple ///.

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Quark Word Juggler protection

Quinn’s comments on my previous post about the downfall of Quark, Inc. pointed out the need for me to take a better picture of the Word Juggler dongle.  So here you go.

Quark Word Juggler dongle

In addition to providing hardware-based DRM for the software, the dongle for Quark Word Juggler also allowed users to create powerful custom keyboard macros.

Also, here’s a shot of the custom keycaps you got when you bought Word Juggler.  These are not stickers that you peeled off a sheet and applied yourself.  Quark shipped actual plastic keycap replacements for your Apple IIe keyboard.

Quark's custom keycaps for Word Juggler functions.

Quark’s custom keycaps for Word Juggler functions.

Two-page Word Juggler ad from a November 1983 issue of InfoWorld.

Word Juggler ad page 1

Word Juggler ad page 2

It’s Quiet… Yeah, too quiet…

I’m sure by now even the three semi-regular readers I had have stopped coming by here (at least if my Jetpack stats are to be believed).  Updates to my Apple II Scans site and this blog are no longer appearing in the A2RSS feed, which is affecting traffic, and not posting anything interesting probably has a lot to do with it as well. In keeping with that grand tradition, here’s more uninteresting content that won’t show up in your RSS reader.

I haven’t recently had a lot to say that I felt needed its own blog post – I have a podcast for that (several actually) and that platform has become a much more interesting content delivery system for me, if I’m being totally honest. Between Open Apple’s new co-host and the great things we have coming up for Drop /// Inches, I’ve found myself re-energized to focus my efforts in those projects rather than this.  When Ken left Open Apple, I was completely demoralized and unsure I’d be able to continue to produce the shows without him. Ken’s fastidious professionalism and organization made it possible for us to produce three years of quality Apple II audio programming, including being able to book great guests and keeping the topics interesting and the discussion lively.  Without getting into details you don’t care about, I can say that the working relationship I had with Ken had become increasingly unhealthy for both of us over the previous months and it was clear the end was nigh. Knowing it was coming though, didn’t make it any easier to face when it finally happened and it affected me much more deeply than I’d expected.

Making matters worse, during the ensuing hiatus I was unable to book any guests for a return show.  Word of Ken’s exit had gotten around and people were unwilling to participate without his presence – I can’t say that I blame them.  I was in a really dark place personally in those following weeks, and (are you sitting down for this?) I’m not the greatest co-host, even with talented people like Ken and Carrington to work with. Carrington’s that Canadian guy who co-hosts another show I do. You can tell he’s Canadian because he smells like syrup and hockey.  (Who even knew hockey had a smell?)  On the mic, I stutter. I’m nervous and unable to convey thoughts in an eloquent, direct manner.  Who would want to hang out with a mumbling, depressed mush-mouth for the hours it takes to complete a recording session?

Quinn Dunki, that’s who.  She agreed to be a guest on #37 and she was great.  She was relaxed and comfortable on the mic and her homebrew 6502 project ‘Veronica’ was something new and fascinating, and I like to think I was able to help her make up her mind to come to Rockhurst. (Hey, I’ll take credit for it even if I had nothing to do with it).  The show was published in July, just before KansasFest and the feedback I got was very positive.  Several listeners even suggested that she should be the new co-host. The outflowing of love was enough that I approached her to come back and sit in the co-host chair.  I guess she also heard a lot of things at KansasFest about it because, after successfully trolling me, she agreed and I have to say, I’m pleased with the results.  Quinn has brought a new technical depth to the show that was evident from the very first episode we did together – the Lawless Legends development team interview was a resounding success largely due to her being able to ask the right questions, and to respond to the answers with even better lines of inquiry.  That episode is not something the listeners would have been able to experience without her participation.

Behind the scenes, it has been great to see her just dive in and get involved with making decisions about the future of Open Apple and what we want to present to you, the listeners.  Maintaining a certain level of quality with every show we put out requires many hours of work – much of it tedious and time-consuming.  It would have been easy for Quinn to assume a passive role and simply sit back, show up once a month to record and not gotten involved in the production or planning aspects at all.  And truthfully, I’d have been happy with that – just being able to continue Open Apple was enough for me really, so to have her instead as an eager and enthusiastic partner has been nothing short of amazing and I wanted to take a minute to thank her publicly.  In short, Quinn is awesome. (Note to self: don’t let Quinn find out she doesn’t have to work as hard.  Second note to self: don’t post notes to self about Quinn in a place she’s likely to see them.)

Oh, and to those few of you who have written to let me know that I only invited Quinn to be on Open Apple because she’s a girl and I’m somehow ‘kissing up’ or white-knighting (is that even a verb?), first I’d like to say that I appreciate you letting me know what I was thinking and what my real motivations were.  Apparently, I didn’t know this and it’s great to have you clear up my confusion.  Second, I’d ask that you listen to the shows she’s done with me objectively (because obviously you didn’t or you wouldn’t have sent those emails in the first place) and then let me know if you still think she’s a ‘fake nerd’ who’s getting things handed to her because she’s a girl (are we really still having this argument? Really?).  Actually, if you still believe that, don’t let me know.  I’d rather you didn’t listen to Open Apple at all and I certainly don’t care what you think.

Up next, we have Drop /// Inches, which has really become an interesting creature.  About three years ago, I decided it might be great to write a book about the Apple ///, focusing on the development of the machine and the people who were involved in it.  I’d read plenty of articles about Apple’s first business computer and they mostly focused on its failure in the marketplace and then repeated a few vague “facts” without really getting to the meat of the matter, so to speak.  Browsing through Google’s completely awesome archives of ComputerWorld and InfoWorld, it became clear that even the tech press of the day was more interested in vilifying Apple than present a clear accounting of the facts.  And so I started reaching out, finding and interviewing the people who were there, who experienced all of this first-hand.  I gathered several dozen hours of audio, as well as documents and other related information that I felt might go well into a book like this.  I even contacted a publisher that had previously released several highly regarded titles on various vintage computing platforms. It became evident that their vision for this project didn’t really align with what I knew I’d be able to provide them and nothing more came of it.  I was left with no clear plan on what I wanted to do with this archive of information about the /// and interviews with the developers, but I certainly didn’t expect what it seems like is going to happen.

I started Drop /// Inches with Paul Hagstrom earlier this year, almost as a laugh and certainly with tongue firmly planted in cheek.  The original goal was to provide an interactive forum for the two of us to get involved with other /// fans, and perhaps provide a valuable learning resource for new users who had just purchased one of these 26-lb beasts from eBay or recovered one from a dank basement/dusty attic somewhere.  The enthusiastic response we received was a complete surprise to us both.  More surprising though, was that we received messages from several people who were involved with the creation of the Apple /// on various levels, expressing their appreciation for what we were doing and wanted to contribute their own experiences and memories.  Of course we accepted.

As hilarious and charismatic as both Paul and I are naturally – we’re amazing and talented orators! I swear! – we realized we needed other voices to help tell this particular story and reached out to Dave Ottalini, former co-chair of the Washington Apple Pi’s /// SIG and keeper of the SARAsaur faith, to join us.  During the course of that interview we learned that while at the Phase /// Conference in 1987, Dave recorded many of the sessions and had saved the original tapes.  The session transcripts made it onto the WAP Apple /// DVD but due to space constraints, the audio was left out.  Dave made those files available to us and it’s been great fun plundering them for information about the /// and the Conference. You can hear the early fruits of our labors in show #6, a session by Don Williams about his experiences with the /// during his days at Apple.

As this was all happening, it occurred to me that those materials I’d been gathering weren’t going to end up in a book.  It’s Drop /// Inches, this weird little podcast about an obscure detour down a dark path on the highway of Apple’s history, chronicling the life and times of the Apple ///, where they would find a home.  I haven’t figured out the best way to integrate the collected research to the podcast in a way that makes sense, beyond the recorded interviews I did, but DTI is becoming this multimedia project to cover in-depth everything we know and can learn about the Apple ///.  Stuff we can scan will likely end up on the podcast’s web page and I know we’re going to eventually release all of Dave’s Phase /// audio files, first as cleaned-up segments for the show with the raw audio files eventually appearing on

Through all of this, we’ve somehow ended up with so much material, we’re struggling to understand how to best present it to you.  I can’t go into all the details (don’t want to spoil any surprises!) but at the very least, I can tell you we’ve got some great interviews with developers coming up and I know their stories won’t be anything you could have Googled before.  I don’t exactly know what Drop /// Inches is going to become, but I’m very excited about the future of the show and it’s really great to be able to help tell the story of the Apple /// and write our own chapter at the same time.

And I guess that’s kind of it for now.  I still intend to re-publish some of the old articles that used to live here.  That will be sometime this year, I hope. Apple II Scans is sort of in zombie-mode: scan, post, move on, repeat.

I’m no longer involved in any way with Juiced.GS or any of Ken’s current projects, so I can’t answer questions about that.  It’s great to see his creative efforts take shape in new directions and I wish him well in his future endeavors.

Why did I post this then?  Mostly because I needed to get it out.  No one reads anything here and certainly not this far into a 1900-word post, so I’m not worried about trying to sound grandiose or impress anyone.  The blog is still alive sort of and I’m still here.

German Apple /// ad

I found this Apple /// ad over at, a German collector’s website.  It features the familiar flow of text wrapped around a “stretched” graphic of the Apple Monitor /// hovering above the ProFile drive, which itself floats over the main /// unit.

"Apple ///. The personal computer with the new ProFile." (click for full size image.)

“Apple ///. The personal computer with the new ProFile.” (click for full size image.)

Here’s a rough translation, courtesy Google’s handy utility:

Apple ///. The personal computer with the new ProFile.

Apple’s Third Generation. No question – personal computers are becoming more popular. And the number of suppliers is large. But before you buy any personal computer should you choose to progress rather equal; Apple’s third generation.

Apple III. The most powerful personal computer on the market. It will benefit them more than you think possible. To make it easier and faster than ever to do business transactions of all kinds.

Comprehensive Software. The Apple /// are the most advanced program packages are available simultaneously.

How VisiCalc for your plans, budgets or administrative costs.

In connection with the Business Graphics software package, you can implement the developed VisiCalc with data directly in graphics, drawings, diagrams, or tables.

Mail List Manager, another program from Apple, helps you to manage up to 960 names and addresses and print them. With any accessibility – according to your wishes. Alphabetically, postal codes or own search terms.

Take added Apple Writer /// software and a printer – and you have a complete text system. With 90% of the performance of the specific word processing computer. Incidentally, almost all programs of the Apple II also run on the Apple ///.

Integrated Data Processing. Exclusive to the Apple /// is the program package ACCESS ///. This enables you to change and returned able to take data from mainframe computers.

Personal Storage. Do you want more, take ProFile it. The special Apple /// hard disk space. More than 5 million characters are stored directly. Which approximately 1200 pages of text corresponding to A4 – enough to manage the data of a middle operation.

Growing with Apple ///. We want your Apple /// according to your requirements grow. And have therefore constructed him that you can connect almost any kind of peripherals. Expandable up to 256 KBytes RAM will help you just as the powerful operating systems SOS, DOS, UCSD and CP / M. What other personal computer has already four operating systems?

Apple /// for the Software Developer. With Apple /// Pascal software developers is the right tool available: A performance operating computer language.

Full-service through the Dealer Network. Service for your Apple /// offer in Germany over 200 dealers. Visit your nearest Apple dealer. And find out for yourself what is true computer performance.

With the exception of the ACCESS /// paragraph, the translator is remarkably good.  Here’s the text in the lower right corner:

Want to know more? Then please fill out this coupon and send it to: Apple Computer Marketing GmbH, Maximilian Street 29, 8000 Munich 22nd

I am interested in:

Commercial Solutions
Software Development

And of course, Apple’s slogan:

Apple.  The Personal Computer.

Quark. Only mostly dead.

Back in 2011, it was widely reported that Quark, the legendary maker of software that at one time was the cornerstone of the desktop publishing industry, had been purchased by Los Angeles-based mergers and acquisitions firm Platinum Equity. Quark’s star had been waning for years by then, its once-sterling reputation now tarnished by a series of blunders in what appeared to be a deliberate and targeted campaign of ill will against its primary customers, Mac users in the industry.  Increasing pressure from Adobe’s encroachment into the publishing space and a CEO that couldn’t keep his mouth shut accelerated the fall, so no one was really surprised when news of the sale broke.  The common speculation was that the whatever valuable IP remained would be sold off to the highest bidder and the company dissolved.  An ignominious end to a sad story, indeed.

Quark global headquarters in downtown Denver, Colorado.

Quark global headquarters in downtown Denver, Colorado.

Sensitive as I am to such things as the suffering of others, I exploited the opportunity to write a post about some of my favorite Apple II and /// products from Quark’s early days.  And, like everyone else, I was expecting the worst for Quark.

Well, turns out they’re still in business.  As I was trying to restore some of the old articles that existed here a few years back, I did a little Googling and yep – they’re still around.  I’m not sure what they’re doing these days.  Gaining market share lost to Adobe doesn’t seem to be a priority, but Platinum Equity is content to let them keep at it.  And that’s cool – my “not so fond farewell” can wait.  Here’s the old article, with the stuff about Quark’s demise excised.

This post originally appeared on on August 9, 2011.

Those of us who have been playing around with computers for a bit longer than the average user probably remember Quark for more than just a powerful desktop publishing application. Here’s a quick look at some of the stuff they produced for my favorite 8-bit home computer, the Apple II (and III!). Don’t worry, the list is short.



Quark was an early proponent of DRM and implemented draconian copy protection schemes in their products. Catalyst was designed as a program selector to assist Apple /// users in loading their expensive business products from diskette onto their new, even more expensive hard disk systems while retaining their copy protection. They were going for the best of both worlds here, and didn’t really attain either.


An Apple /// user would first install Catalyst onto their shiny new $5,000 10 MB ProFile drive and then, through a series of convoluted steps, load various pieces of software into Catalyst. During the install, the user’s original diskettes would be disabled and permanently tied to the Catalyst diskette so that the originals would no longer boot and could only be reinstalled to the hard drive through the specific copy of Quark’s program to which they were tied. Quark whimsically referred to these lobotomized disks as, “Catalyzed”.


Have you been… uh… Catalyzed?

Additionally, if your newly enslaved applications required access to your printer, Catalyst had to be manually configured through a quick, 30-step process… Okay, maybe not so quick.



Catalyst itself was also copy protected and featured a serial number so that once “Catalyzed” your applications couldn’t be loaded by a copy with a different serial number.

You can imagine the headache you were in for if you one day decided to move to a different program selector to access your programs once they had been modified.

A version of Catalyst creatively called “Catalyst IIe” was eventually introduced for the Apple IIe and IIc.

Word Juggler


Quark’s word processor for the Apple II line was known for its ease of use, extensive feature set and simple learning curve and matched up well against AppleWriter, which served as Word Juggler’s main competition until the AppleWorks suite was released by Apple in 1984. On the Apple ///, Word Juggler was the first, and for years only, commercially available word processor.

Apple recommended Word Juggler and even sold copies directly to customers and through dealer retail shelves while its own offering, Apple Writer ///, floundered in development hell.

Word Juggler ad from InfoWorld, Nov 30, 1981

Word Juggler ad from InfoWorld, Nov 30, 1981

On your Apple II, it came with a custom set of keycaps, silk-screened with convenient command information, and a nice keyboard template of sorts, that you could align with your number keys for easy reference while working.  Fancy.


Word Juggler wasn’t immune to Quark’s copy protection efforts and customers had to install a hardware dongle in their Apple II to get the software to boot up at all. All that convenience and flare didn’t come for free, it seems.


Lurking silently in your Apple II, protecting Quark’s IP.

And that pretty much wraps it up for Quark’s 8-bit Apple software offerings. They also sold a number of minor applications, most designed to enhance Word Juggler. Lexicheck was an 8,000-word spelling checker; Terminus provided telecommunications functionality; Mail List Manager Interface also integrated with Word Juggler as did TypeFace, giving you access to typesetting equipment, should you have it.



And so we bid a not-so-fond farewell to the corporate entity known as Quark, Inc.

Perhaps Quark, Inc.’s final chapter has yet to be written…